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This work offers a statistical analysis of the range and scope of women's involvement at the managerial level in the socio-economic and political life of Antigua and Barbuda. It has produced data which are in keeping with Caribbean trends: that the s of women involved in leadership and decision-making processes are small in comparison to men. In the United Nations Decade for Womengovernments throughout the Caribbean and the rest of the world promised to actively seek to bring about a more equitable distribution of power and privilege in their countries.
Furthermore, the major aims of the United Nations Beijing Conference on Women to carry forward policies and plans to enhance the status of women have not been realized to any ificant degree. It is true that for Antigua and Barbuda gains have been made in women's education and health.
But this is nothing new. There has been steady improvement in these two critical areas for several decades before the UN Decade for Women started in However, in other areas, in particular the political life of the nation, women continue to be under represented at the highest levels. The Caribbean-wide trend of minimal participation by women in the governance of their countries is perhaps no where as clearly demonstrated as in Antigua and Barbuda.
The scope of the study covers three broad sectors: the public, the private and the professions. Within these sectors, data - aggregated by sex and level of attainment - are analyzed. The study makes use of the most recent data available from published and unpublished sources. This study will not review the various definitions of the terms "management" and "managers".
The terms are used here to refer simply to those of persons who are responsible for making policy decisions at the highest level of organizations, both public and private. They also refer to those who are responsible for seeing that such policy decisions are carried out - the senior administrative personnel of organizations.
For the purposes of this study, professionals such as doctors, lawyers, engineers and vendors are also regarded as "managers" since they are often responsible for formulating policies as well as engaging in administrative tasks at the highest levels. A recent census was undertaken in Antigua and Barbuda in which puts the population of Antigua and Barbuda at 70, with 36, females and 33, males, a fairly even ratio of 1. However, the data are still in the process of being tabulated and analyzed. But the data from the population census are more complete, hence, throughout this paper statistics from the census are used to indicate relevant characteristics of the population.
According to the census, the resident population of Antigua and Barbuda was estimated to be 63, persons, but the of persons for whom completed data are available is only 59, Of this 59, tabulated population, 30, persons are female and 28, male - a ratio of 1. It is useful to Antigua And Barbuda girl looking for sugar some data on Barbuda as a separate entity. Barbuda is often subsumed under Antigua though it is a separate island with its own distinct character and its own distinct issues.
Barbuda is a small island of just 62 square miles. This low-lying island is situated some 25 miles north of its sister island of Antigua. It is mainly a fishing community, although in recent years, with the establishment of two very exclusive hotels on the island, tourism has become a ificant employer of labour. In the census, Barbuda had a population of approximately 1, persons: or Ten years later, the census put the population of Barbuda at 1, - females and males, Of some relevance to an analysis of the involvement of women in management and decision-making processes in Antigua and Barbuda is status of their health.
A healthy, long life gives some assurance that a person will be around long enough to advance through the system, if advancement is at all possible. In general, the health of Antiguan women is good by both Caribbean and international standards. The life expectancy at birth for females is currently about 78 years compared to that of males which is approximately 72 years for the USA it is 80 for females and 77 for males.
The maternal health of the nation's women is also very good. Only one maternal death was reported in For the three years ly, not a single woman had died in childbirth. In the period to Septemberthere were notifications by persons that they had the virus.
Of that total, or The statistics as at June indicate that the of notifications increased to Thus to date, fewer women have contracted the virus than men. However, when the statistics are broken down into agethe incidence of infection among females paints a grim picture of what the future is likely to hold for the health of women. Among persons in their late twentieswomen out men by a ratio of The ratio is even higher in the lower age groups. For youths agedthe ratio of women to men is"which means that teenage women are surpassing their men counterparts by a landslide" AIDS Secretariat, It is believed that a ificant of persons go abroad to seek treatment.
Of even greater relevance to our study, however, is the level of higher education attained by women and men in Antigua And Barbuda girl looking for sugar society. This observation is also borne out by the enrolment figures at the Antigua State College ASC - the main tertiary institution which caters for students at this level.
At the ASC, the trend for many years has been that females greatly out males in programmes that are directly relevant to university admission. However, at the level of university education in Antigua and Barbuda, the census figures show that men out women. Refer to Table 1. Of the mere 3. Thus, roughly, for every 4 males that had university education inthere were only 3 females. This abrupt reversal in favour of males at university level is somewhat surprising.
A possible explanation for the preponderance of males over females who have university education is that the census collected statistics on the resident population which included persons from other countries domiciled in Antigua and Barbuda.
Actual enrolment figures in all tertiary institutions in Antigua and Barbuda reveal that for at least a decade, more females pursue University level education than males. For instance at the Antigua State College, there is a Department of Undergraduate Studies which enrolls students in university level programmes of the University of the West Indies.
In this department, the enrolment statistics show a preponderance of females over males.
A similar trend of female dominance in enrolment figures can be observed at the University of the West Indies, School of Continuing Studies and in this institution, the disparity between the sexes is even greater. The overwhelming majority of the students enrolled in its academic and professional programmes are female. Of the students enrolled, only 20 are male. Thus, females continue to out males by a ratio of almost It is therefore very clear from the data that, at our local tertiary level institutions, more females than males are currently availing Antigua And Barbuda girl looking for sugar of academic and professional training.
It is also useful to examine recent trends in the region as a whole. Enrolment statistics at the regional University, the University of the West Indies, indicate that for over a decade, it has trained more females than males. Evidence indicates that this trend in female dominance in higher education is continuing and even escalating. Thus, unless such women opt not to enter the workforce and there is no evidence to show that they choose not to work there ought to be, today, an even larger cadre of women than men who can attain management positions. The Government of Antigua and Barbuda is by far the single largest employer of labour in the nation.
However, when we look specifically at the Civil Service and distinguish between established and non-established workers, women have some advantage over men. Inthey had increased their dominance considerably to All things being equal, this should have led to a concomitant dominance in managerial positions. But until recently, women failed to achieve a proportional of positions in the higher echelons of the Civil Service.
Women achieved parity with men in when there were 8 females and 8 males in the category. This parity was maintained for several years. However, currently inwomen have surpassed males as permanent secretaries. In fairness to women, the ratio ought to be higher in their favour since they predominate numerically at the lower levels. There are a of Statutory Bodies and Corporations that are wholly owned by the Government of Antigua and Barbuda. Of the 19 Statutory Bodies and Corporations that existed intwelve of them, mostly the smaller ones had more women in their employ than men.
Bythe of such bodies had risen to 26 with 17 of them again the smaller ones for the most part having more female employees. But in total, there are far more men employed in these bodies than women because the larger ones are predominantly male.
Of the total of persons employed in these institutions inwere male and were female. These figures translate into However, in the yearthe latest for which data are available, they constituted only They have yet to achieve parity with males. The reason or reasons why there is such an overwhelming preponderance of men in the general staff of Government statutory bodies and corporations is not clear.
One possible explanation is that many of these bodies Antigua And Barbuda girl looking for sugar linked to professions that, traditionally, have been male-dominated. For instance, the Antigua Public Utilities Authority APUAthe largest of all such Government bodies, employs mostly electricians, engineers and other technical staff.
The of males employed by the APUA in was compared to females - a ratio of just over Inthe s of employees increased for both sexes: males to females. But for women, the increase is not particularly ificant, a mere 2. The proportion of male to female employees still remains high - 3. The appointment of persons to boards of government statutory bodies and corporations can be regarded as bestowing managerial status on the members because such boards generally make policy decisions not only for their own organizations, but also for a wide range of other government institutions. In addition, membership confers a great deal of power and prestige as well as attracting quite decent levels of remuneration.
When we examine the membership of women on such government boards, we see that women fare very badly. Women are even more under-represented at the board level than they are in the general body staff. Inof the total of 93 appointed board members, only 12 were female - a mere Bythe percentage of women serving on such boards had increased to These figures point to some improvement in the position of women in decision-making processes of these Government bodies, but they still lag far behind men in this regard.
A more detailed examination of one such board - the Board of Educationshows that of the nine appointees to this Board insix were male and three female.
Currently inof the ten members, there are an even of males and females - five each. But it is interesting to point out that the persons who have chaired this board since its inception in have all been male. This is so despite the fact that this board deals with issues relating to education and as shall be shown below, the teaching profession has been overwhelmingly female for decades. Although there are a of private schools operating at all levels of the educational system, the Government of Antigua and Barbuda is still the major institution undertaking the employment and training of teachers.
And accurate figures are not readily available for non-Government schools. As is true for the region as a whole, women greatly out men in the teaching profession. Women also outstrip men by far in the hehip of schools at this level. Of the 37 principals, only four are male. Thus women out men almost in terms of the management of primary schools. Barbuda has only one school, the Holy Trinity School, that houses both primary and secondary level students.
The primary and secondary departments of the Holy Trinity School share teachers. The teaching profession in Barbuda is also mainly female. The current head, who is a Barbudan, is male. He is the first Barbudan to head the Holy Trinity School. All of the he have been Antiguans.
It is useful to examine the teaching profession at the level of secondary schools to determine whether or not the preponderance of female teachers at this level also translates into dominance in managerial positions, that is, hehip of schools.
At the secondary level, the proportion of female to male teachers employed by the Government is not as great as it is at the primary level, but female teachers still predominate ificantly. Of the secondary teachers excluding Barbuda are female and male, a ratio of approximately 2. Principals eight, five of whom are female, a ratio of 1. An obvious interpretation of the data is that in their appointment as he of secondary schools, women still have an advantage over men. But considering that the teaching profession is still overwhelmingly female at this level, this perceived advantage is not proportional to their overall strength in s.
The current head of the ASC is a female but the two he were male. It is pertinent to look at the Royal Police Force of Antigua and Barbuda as it is as important arm of government. The involvement of females in the police force is very low, as is the case throughout the Caribbean. Specifically, in relation to the question of how many women are in managerial positions, we see from Table 2 that inthe highest ranking female officer was an Inspector.
Five years later, only one attained the rank of Assistant Superintendent and nine years after that, there was still only one female Assistant Superintendent. This not is surprising since there were limits put on how high a female could go in the force. A female officer could only aspire to the rank of Superintendent.Antigua And Barbuda girl looking for sugar
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