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Drug dependence is defined as a psychic and physical state of the person characterized by behavioral and other responses resulting in compulsions to take a drug, on a continuous or periodic basis in order to experience its psychic effect and at times to avoid the discomfort of its absence.
From: Illustrated Toxicology, Douglas H. Ruben, in Encyclopedia of Applied Psychology Drug dependence differs from drug abuse in three ways. First, drug dependence consists of clearly measurable periods of tolerance and withdrawal, whereas drug abuse sets the occasion for tolerance and withdrawal. Abuse means there exist early warning s of life impairment predictive of physical and psychological dependence.
Adults arrested for driving under the influence of alcohol, for instance, often face fears that their uncontrolled drinking may result in fatal vehicular accidents. Second, drug-dependent users show marked cognitive, behavioral, and psychomotor retardation in their daily activities. Drug abusers, however, may or may not suffer apparent cognitive, behavioral, or psychomotor malfunctioning; they may mask intoxication symptoms by performing their jobs and vehicular operations adequately and interacting normally with their families.
Third, the phenomenon of withdrawal syndrome applies only to drug dependence. Drug abusers are episodic and not routine users, and their consumptive rates are variable; intermittent and lesser quantity users build resistance to adverse cognitive and visceral repercussions and only suffer mild or no side effects after abrupt cessation of desired substances. Mead, in Encyclopedia of Behavioral Neuroscience While specific definitions of drug addiction or substance dependence vary, there is general agreement regarding the factors that are typical of the addicted or dependent individual.
Definitions typically require the act of compulsive or obsessive drug seeking, a progressive increase in the amount of drug taken over time, and the occurrence of a negative affective state following withdrawal of the drug. These three components can also be viewed as describing aspects of craving, loss of control over drug intake, and physical dependence, respectively.
While it is not possible to study or model drug addiction in any single animal model, by breaking down the complex disorder of drug addiction into its more basic components, it becomes possible to model specific aspects of addictive behavior. For example, one can develop animal models to study aspects of drug taking or drug seeking, while separately investigating the development of physical dependence and the occurrence of negative affect during withdrawal from chronic drug administration.
As with all complex disorders of the brain, the value of animal models of drug addiction really lies in understanding the psychological and neurobiological mechanisms, which underlie specific aspects of the disorder, and the subsequent application of such learning to the clinical situation. Patterns of drug dependence differ with age. Men are more commonly involved than women.
Patterns change as drugs come in and out of vogue. The general picture in Drug dependence involves UK is shown in Table Data on illicit drug use in the UK are provided from a of sources but up-to-date information on prevalence and patterns of usage can be obtained from the annual British Crime Survey.
The survey also allows observations on the trends in illicit drug use over time, as shown in Table James J. Nocon, in Clinical Pharmacology During Pregnancy A critical aspect of the effective treatment of substance use disorders is to identify and treat psychiatric co-morbid disorders.
Some co-morbid psychiatric problems are more common in women  :. In addition, genetic markers have been identified with a of psychiatric disorders in which there is a higher incidence of substance use . They include:. Pharmacologic treatment of these disorders enhances recovery from substance use and also poses additional problems for the fetus including need for treatment of the neonate in special intensive care units for symptoms of withdrawal .
This is especially true for benzodiazepines, which have a higher rate of teratogenicity and withdrawal, especially when combined with alcohol . Risks and benefits Drug dependence involves pharmacologic treatment are most important when treating co-morbidity in pregnancy. Shaul Lev-Ran, Substance use Drug dependence involves SUDs and mental illness frequently co-occur.
Cross-sectional studies indicate that mood and anxiety disorders occur at higher rates among individuals with SUDs and that increased prevalence of SUDs are found among those with mood and Drug dependence involves disorders. Specific rates of comorbidity differ depending on the specific SUD and mental illness in question. Longitudinal studies have reported mixed regarding the temporal association between SUDs and mood and anxiety disorders. Among all mood and anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder seems to be particularly associated with the future development of SUDs.
This chapter focuses on the epidemiological data regarding the comorbidity of SUDs and mood and anxiety disorders, presenting a summary of cross-sectional and longitudinal research on the topic. The authors conclude by presenting a review of etiopathogenic hypotheses concerning these comorbidities. Drug dependenceincluding cocaine and opioid dependence, is one of the most common phenotypes comorbid with AD.
Drug dependence has been shown to have a of characteristics in common with AD, such as response to specific treatments. In fact, drug dependence may share susceptibility genes with AD. Luo et al. Both the Hardy—Weinberg equilibrium and a case—control comparison revealed that the association of ADH4 gene with drug dependence reached levels of statistical ificance that were at least as great as those for AD.
Cecilia A. Essau, in Adolescent Addiction Second Edition SUD is defined as a problematic pattern of using substances which lead to impairment in daily life or distress. The diagnosis of SUD is based on a set of behaviors related to substance consumption; these behaviors are grouped into four mainnamely, impaired control, social impairment, risky use, and pharmacological indicators tolerance and withdrawal.
The latter is a less severe symptom presentation than substance dependence. A person with a substance abuse may continue using substance despite problems in various life domains. Recent years have seen an increased of studies investigating the prevalence of SUD and their comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders.
In a study by Roberts, Roberts, and Xing Among adolescents with SUD, the mean of comorbid disorders in the past year ranged from 1. A ificant level of comorbidity was found within the different subtypes of SUD. The odds of meeting the criteria of marijuana dependence among those with alcohol dependence were fold.
Among adolescents with marijuana dependence, the odds of having substance abuse and other dependence were fold and fold, respectively. SUD also ificantly increased the risk of having comorbid disruptive disorders. Females and older adolescents with SUD had higher rates of comorbid disorders compared to males and younger adolescents. Of all the classes of substances, alcohol was the one most frequently investigated. Drug addiction is a devastating health problem that is a very heavy burden on the individual affected and the society in general.
Recent research defines addiction as a neurobehavioral disorder. Underpinning biological mechanisms of drug addiction are abnormal neuronal and brain activity following acute and repeated drug exposure. Abnormal gene expression is found in reward and decision-making brain regions of addicts and in animal models and is possibly responsible for changes in brain function. DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that regulates gene expression.
Global and site-specific changes in DNA methylation are observed in addiction. Here, we discuss recent findings on the involvement of DNA methylation in drug addiction from animal and human studies. We also propose future directions for utilizing DNA methylation-based approaches for diagnosis, therapeutics, and evaluation of response to therapy in drug addiction. Iliyan Ivanov, SUDs are defined by the DSM-5 as a pattern of drug use causing clinically ificant impairment or distress.
The heritability of SUDs is now known to be multifactorial; however, no specific genes have been identified as biological markers of SUD. Behavioral features like impulsivity, excessive risk taking, and sensation seeking are thought to contribute to the development of adolescent SUD.
Drug dependence involves studies have shown that children that present with high levels of impulsivity, excessive risk taking, and sensation seeking also exhibit dysfunctions in various brain regions including the prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate gyrus, and the limbic system. Both structural and functional abnormalities have been observed in the prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate gyrus, and the limbic system in children of parents with SUDs.
Alterations in brain structures and functions related to reward processing and behavioral control may present biological vulnerabilities for the development of SUDs in children of substance-using parents. Drug Dependence Drug dependence is defined as a psychic and physical state of the person characterized by behavioral and other responses resulting in compulsions to take a drug, on a continuous or periodic basis in order to experience its psychic effect and at times to avoid the discomfort of its absence. Download as PDF. Set alert. About this. Drug Dependence Douglas H.
Ruben, in Encyclopedia of Applied Psychology1. View chapter Purchase book. Drug Addiction A. Mead, in Encyclopedia of Behavioral NeuroscienceDrug Addiction While specific Drug dependence involves of drug addiction or substance dependence vary, there is general agreement regarding the factors that are typical of the addicted or dependent individual.
Substance Use Disorders James J. Comorbidity of addictive problems: Assessment and treatment implications Cecilia A. Epigenetics and Psychiatric Disease Elad Lax, Moshe Szyf, in Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational ScienceAbstract Drug addiction is a devastating health problem that is a very heavy burden on the individual affected and the society in general.Drug dependence involves
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Substance Abuse / Chemical Dependency