Ether drug facts

Added: Parks Fitchett - Date: 23.01.2022 01:10 - Views: 16172 - Clicks: 2333

Etherany of a class of organic compounds characterized by an oxygen atom bonded to two alkyl or aryl groups. Ethers are similar in structure to alcoholsand both ethers and alcohols are similar in structure to water. In an alcohol one hydrogen atom of a water molecule is replaced by an alkyl group, whereas in an ether both hydrogen atoms are replaced by alkyl or aryl groups. At room temperature, ethers are pleasant-smelling colourless liquids. Relative to alcohols, Ether drug facts are generally less dense, are less soluble in water, and have lower boiling points.

They are relatively unreactive, and as a result they are useful as solvents for fatsoils, waxesperfumesresinsdyesgumsand hydrocarbons. Vapours of certain ethers are used as insecticidesmiticidesand fumigants for soil. Ethers are also important in medicine and pharmacology, especially for use as anesthetics.

Codeinea potent pain-relieving drug, is the methyl ether of morphine. Ethyl ether is an excellent solvent for extractions and for a wide variety of chemical reactions. It is Ether drug facts used as a volatile starting fluid for diesel engines and gasoline engines in cold weather. Dimethyl ether is used as a spray propellant and refrigerant. Methyl t -butyl ether MTBE is a gasoline additive that boosts the octane and reduces the amount of nitrogen-oxide pollutants in the exhaust.

The ethers of ethylene glycol are used as solvents and plasticizers. Common names of ethers simply give the names of the two alkyl groups bonded to oxygen and add the word ether. The current practice is to list the alkyl groups in alphabetical order t -butyl methyl etherbut older names often list the alkyl groups in increasing order of size methyl t -butyl ether.

If just one alkyl group is described in the name, it implies two identical groups, as in ethyl ether for diethyl ether. Systematic IUPAC names for ethers use the more complex group as the root name, with the oxygen atom and the smaller group named as an alkoxy substituent. Examples Ether drug facts above are ethoxyethane diethyl ethermethoxyethane methyl ethyl ether2-methoxymethylpropane MTBEand phenoxybenzene diphenyl ether. The IUPAC nomenclature works well for compounds with additional functional groupsbecause the other functional groups can be described in the root name.

Ethers lack the hydroxyl groups of alcohols. Ethers do have nonbonding electron pairs on their oxygen atoms, however, and they can form hydrogen bonds with other molecules alcohols, aminesetc. The ability to form hydrogen bonds with other compounds makes ethers particularly good solvents for a wide variety of organic compounds and a surprisingly large of inorganic compounds. For more information about hydrogen bonding, see chemical bonding: Intermolecular forces. Because ether molecules cannot engage in hydrogen bonding with each other, they have much lower boiling points than do alcohols with similar molecular weights.

The unique properties of ethers i. For example, Grignard reagents cannot form unless an ether is present to share its lone pair of electrons with the magnesium atom. Complexation of the magnesium atom stabilizes the Grignard reagent and helps to keep it in solution. Electron-deficient reagents are also stabilized by ethers.

For example, borane BH 3 is a useful reagent for making alcohols. Pure borane exists as its dimer, diborane B 2 H 6a toxic gas that is inconvenient and hazardous to use. Borane forms stable complexes with ethers, however, and it is often supplied and used as its liquid complex with tetrahydrofuran THF. Similarly, gaseous boron trifluoride BF 3 is more easily used as its liquid complex with diethyl ether, called BF 3 etherate, rather than as the toxic, corrosive gas. Crown ethers are specialized cyclic polyethers that surround specific metal ions to form crown-shaped cyclic complexes. They are named by using the parent name crown preceded by a describing the size of the ring and followed by the of oxygen atoms in the ring.

In the crown-ether complex, the metal ion fits into the cavity of the crown ether and is solvated by the oxygen atoms. The exterior of the complex is nonpolar, masked by the alkyl groups of the crown ether. Many inorganic salts can be made soluble in nonpolar organic solvents by complexing them with an appropriate crown ether. In each of these crown-ether complexes, only the cation is solvated by the crown ether.

In a nonpolar solvent, the anion is not solvated but is dragged into solution by the cation. Introduction Nomenclature of ethers Physical properties of ethers Complexes of ethers with reagents Synthesis of ethers Williamson ether synthesis Bimolecular dehydration Reactions of ethers Cleavage Autoxidation.

Additional Info. Home Science Chemistry Ether chemical compound. Print print Print. Table Of Contents. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions.

Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires. External Websites. By Leroy G. Wade View Edit History. Key People: J. Fraser Stoddart Alexander William Williamson Show more. Full Article. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content.

Subscribe Now. Load Next .

Ether drug facts

email: [email protected] - phone:(666) 707-8935 x 6938

Ether addiction