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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. We used data from women ages 18—20 in the Relationship Dynamics and Social Life RDSL study, which interviewed a random, population-based sample in a Michigan county. We used ordered logistic regression with fixed-effects to control for individual- and relationship-level characteristics.

Women expected more control in their long-term compared to short-term relationships, and expected control increases over time in a specific relationship. Our are consistent with cross-sectional research Woman want real sex Buchanan Michigan that women in violent relationships experience more reproductive coercion than women in non-violent relationships, but we also found that other aspects of intimate relationships are important determinants of expected control over sex and contraception.

Reproductive coercion — interference with autonomous reproductive decision-making — is associated with increased risk of undesired pregnancy [ 1 — 3 ]. We analyze how changes in multiple characteristics of intimate relationships lead to changes in expected control over sex and contraception. Using the Traits-Desires-Intentions-Behavior TDIB framework see Figure 1we conceptualize control as the ability to translate desires for something into the corresponding behaviors to achieve it [ 10 ]. The framework explicates the internal regulators of this process, including motivational conflict other desires that conflict with the focal desire, e.

We add partners to this framework, positing several junctures where they affect desires, intentions, and behaviors. Finally, partners can force women to have unwanted sex rape or sabotage their contraceptive use. Based on existing research, we consider two aspects of intimate relationships: 1 the level of intimacy e.

We have two contrasting hypotheses about intimacy and commitment. First, women in the least intimate and committed relationships — e. If so, these women may expect a relatively high level of individual control.

Further buttressing this hypothesis, desire to avoid pregnancy is likely strongest in the least intimate and committed relationships [ 162223 ], which may reduce internal motivational conflict and increase self-regulation. Thus, we hypothesize that greater intimacy and commitment may be associated with less expected control over sex and contraception. Second, on the other hand, partners who disagree about whether they want to delay or avoid pregnancy may remain less intimate and committed.

Similarly, women may exit relationships with disagreeable, coercive, or forceful partners. Thus, relationships that endure and become serious — e.

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Thus, we also hypothesize that greater intimacy and commitment, including increasing duration, may be associated with more expected control over sex and contraception. Regardless of the level of intimacy and commitment, we expect that women in conflictual or asymmetric relationships, including those that are violent, will expect less control over sex and contraception. Violent men also tend to want their partners pregnant [ 2 ] and they use reproductive coercion to implement that desire [ 22425 ]. For example, women in violent relationships fear abuse if they request condom use [ 122627 ].

A vast literature has demonstrated the association between intimate partner violence, reproductive coercion, and decreased contraceptive use for recent systematic reviews, see [ 11122829 ]. Women then participated in a 2.

The follow-up study concluded in Januaryand yielded 58, weekly interviews. Every weekly survey measured intimate relationship characteristics, contraceptive use, and pregnancy. Additional measures assessed concepts likely to vary less frequently, such as the hypothetical questions about expected control over future reproductive behaviors used in this analysis. These additional measures were asked approximately every 14 weeks about quarterlybeginning with week 8 or 9.

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Women provided written informed consent to participate in the baseline interviews, assent for web-based interviews, and oral consent for telephone interviews. Thus, we analyze 2, quarterly interviews with women in intimate relationships. Willingness: Imagine being with a partner who wants to have sexual intercourse, and you want to have sex, but you have no birth control available. How willing would you be to have sex without any birth control? Expectation: What are the chances that you will have sexual intercourse without birth control during the next year?

Each week, RDSL ascertained whether each woman had a partner of any kind during the prior week. Respondents who had more than one partner during the prior week identified the most important or most serious, and discussed one partner in detail each week.

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Most research on intimate relationships uses the type of relationship e. Sexual intercourse is an additional indicator of intimacy [ 1519 ]. See Table 1 for questions and coding. research also differentiates between short-term and long-term relationships [ 2135 ]. In our models, time-varying relationship duration is the total weeks spent with the current partner, including time spent together before and after breakups, coded in exact years.

We also include a squared term in the models. Consistent with research, we use five measures of conflict and asymmetry, which are inter-related [ 2035 ]. Age difference between respondent and partner is coded in exact years positive values ify an older partner [ 15213536 ]. Two dichotomous variables — woman had a prior birth, partner had a prior birth — indicate pre-relationship history.

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We code time-varying age in exact years at the time of each interview. Although fixed-effects models cannot include these characteristics, random-effects models are in the Appendix. They include indicators of demographic characteristics, childhood socioeconomic disadvantage, and adolescent experiences with sex and pregnancy, all measured in the baseline interview.

See [ 2 ] for a description of these measures. First, we calculated the mean and standard deviation continuous variables or the proportion dichotomous variables. Next, we used Stata SE v. Odds ratios represent the average multiplicative effect on the odds of being in the next higher category of expected control high vs.

The mean is 2. Note that some relationships were ongoing at the conclusion of the study. Partners were on average 2. However, as we show in Figure 1 a graph of the odds ratios for each categorythe pattern is u-shaped: women expect the least control while they are engaged or married and the most control while they are dating uncommitted, long-distance, or committed.

They also expect less control in their casual relationships but not as little as while cohabiting, engaged, or married. Women expect more control in their longer-term compared to their shorter-term relationships model 1and as their relationships endure, expected control increases model 2. The ificant odds ratio for squared duration, however, indicates that when a relationship has endured a long time, expected control decreases. Women expect ificantly less control over sex and contraception in their relationships with older partners model 1.

Although women do not expect more control with their monogamous versus non-monogamous partners in general model 1expected control decreases after a partner is non-monogamous compared to before he was non-monogamous model 2. And finally, women expect less control in their violent vs. Consistent with our hypothesis, net of relationship type, duration increases expected control. Our extend these patterns to reveal Woman want real sex Buchanan Michigan a broader set of intimate relationship characteristics — beyond violent versus non-violent — is likely to influence reproductive coercion.

Consistent with some of the earliest work on reproductive coercion, showing that many women experience reproductive coercion even in the absence of physical or sexual violence [ 25 ], we provide more evidence that the absence of violence does not necessarily equate to high levels of expected control and that reproductive coercion can occur in subtle ways. Our specific analyses also have several limitations.

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For example, ARCHES is an intervention to reduce intimate partner violence, reproductive coercion, and unintended pregnancy among family planning patients by providing education and resources to help women navigate unhealthy intimate relationships, recognize s of reproductive coercion, and be safer in potentially harmful relationships, particularly as it relates to contraception [ 38 ]. Our analyses inform this and other similar interventions in two key ways. Contraceptive decision aids, such as Bedsider.

However, given that the young women in RDSL who wanted to use contraception expected to or were willing to have sex without it, a more explicit question might be useful, focusing on what might block their ability to use the contraception they choose with the help of these aids. Although several screening interventions developed for the healthcare setting are effective [ 40 ], few interventions focus on the link between intimate partner violence and sexual and reproductive health and only one intervention includes reproductive coercion as a primary outcome.

Interventions such as ARCHES that go beyond these recommendations to recognize that all women, regardless of experiences with violence and regardless of the character of their intimate relationships, could benefit from education about reproductive coercion and its reproductive health consequences are necessary. Publisher's Disclaimer: This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication.

As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript.

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The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proof before it is published in its final citable form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain. We recognize this limitation.

Jennifer S. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Author manuscript; available in PMC Dec 1. Author information Copyright and information Disclaimer. Ingalls St. Copyright notice. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Contraception. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Conclusions: Our are consistent with cross-sectional research suggesting that women in violent relationships experience more reproductive coercion than women in non-violent relationships, but we also found that other aspects of intimate relationships are important determinants of expected control over sex and contraception.

Introduction Reproductive coercion — interference with autonomous reproductive decision-making — is associated with increased risk of undesired pregnancy [ 1 — 3 ]. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Dependent variable: Expected control over sex and contraception Our dependent variable is based on two survey questions: Willingness: Imagine being with a partner who wants to have sexual intercourse, and you want to have sex, but you have no birth control available. Independent variables 2. Intimate relationship characteristics Each week, RDSL ascertained whether each woman had a partner of any kind during the prior week.

Table 1 Coding for Measure of Relationship Type. Age We code time-varying age in exact years at the time of each interview.

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Time-invariant respondent characteristics Although fixed-effects models cannot include these characteristics, random-effects models are in the Appendix. Data analysis First, we calculated the mean and standard deviation continuous variables or the proportion dichotomous variables.

Footnotes Publisher's Disclaimer: This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. Recent reproductive coercion and unintended pregnancy among female family planning clients. Contraception ; 89 —8. American Sociological Review ; 83 —

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