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Please note: An erratum has been published for this article. To view the erratum, please. Kimberly A. WorkowskiMD 1,2. Gail A. BolanMD 1.
These guidelines for the treatment of persons who have or are at risk for sexually transmitted diseases Woman want real sex Millers Ferry were updated by CDC after consultation with a group of professionals knowledgeable in the field of STDs who met in Atlanta on April 30—May 2, Physicians and other health-care providers can use these guidelines to assist in the prevention and treatment of STDs.
The term sexually transmitted diseases STDs refers to a variety of clinical syndromes and infections caused by pathogens that can be acquired and transmitted through sexual activity. Physicians and other health-care providers play a critical role in preventing and treating STDs. These guidelines for the treatment of STDs are intended to assist with that effort. Although these guidelines emphasize treatment, prevention strategies and diagnostic recommendations also are discussed.
These recommendations should be regarded as a source of clinical guidance rather than prescriptive standards; health-care providers should always consider the clinical circumstances of each person in the context of local disease prevalence. These guidelines are applicable to any patient-care setting that serves persons at risk for STDs, including family-planning clinics, HIV-care clinics, correctional health-care settings, private physicians' offices, Federally Qualified Health Centers FQHCsand other primary-care facilities. These guidelines were developed by CDC staff and an independent workgroup for which members were selected on the basis of their expertise in the clinical management of STDs.
Members of the multidisciplinary workgroup included representatives from federal, state, and local health departments; public- and private-sector clinical providers; clinical and basic science researchers; and numerous professional organizations. All workgroup members disclosed potential conflicts of interest; several members of the workgroup acknowledged receiving financial support for clinical research from commercial companies.
All potential conflicts of interest are listed at the end of the workgroup member section. InCDC staff and workgroup members were charged with identifying key questions regarding treatment and clinical management that were not addressed in the STD Treatment Guidelines 1. To answer these questions and synthesize new information available since publication of the Guidelines, workgroup members collaborated with CDC staff to conduct a systematic literature review using an extensive MEDLINE database evidence-based approach e.
These reviews also focused on four principal outcomes of STD therapy for each individual disease or infection: 1 treatment of infection based on microbiologic eradication; 2 alleviation of s and symptoms; 3 prevention of sequelae; 4 prevention of transmission, including advantages such as cost-effectiveness and other advantages e. The outcome of the literature review informed development of background materials, including tables of evidence from peer-reviewed publications summarizing the type of study e. In Aprilthe workgroup's research was presented at an in-person meeting of the multidisciplinary workgroup members.
Each key question was discussed, and pertinent publications were reviewed in terms of strengths, weaknesses, and relevance. The discussion culminated in a proposal of recommendations to be adopted for consideration by CDC. Following the April meeting, the literature was searched periodically by CDC staff to identify subsequently published articles warranting consideration by the workgroup either through e-mail or conference calls.
CDC developed draft recommendations based on the workgroup's proposal. To ensure development of evidence-based recommendations, a second independent panel of public health and clinical experts reviewed the draft recommendations. Throughout this report, the evidence used as the basis for specific recommendations is discussed briefly. More comprehensive, annotated discussions of such evidence will appear in background papers that will be available in a supplement issue of the journal Clinical Infectious Diseases after publication of these treatment guidelines.
When more than one therapeutic regimen is recommended, the recommendations are listed alphabetically unless prioritized based on efficacy, tolerance, or costs. For infections with more than one recommended regimen, listed regimens have similar efficacy and similar rates of intolerance or toxicity unless otherwise specified. Recommended regimens should be used primarily; alternative regimens can be considered in instances of notable drug allergy or other medical contraindications to the recommended regimens. Primary prevention of STDs includes performing an assessment of behavioral risk i.
As part of the clinical encounter, health-care providers should routinely obtain sexual histories from their patients and address risk reduction as indicated in this report. Effective interviewing and counseling skills characterized by respect, compassion, and a nonjudgmental attitude toward all patients are essential to obtaining a thorough sexual history and delivering effective prevention messages. Effective techniques for facilitating rapport with patients include the use of 1 open-ended questions e.
How is it for you? The "Five P's" approach to obtaining a sexual history is one strategy for eliciting information concerning five key areas of interest Box 1. For additional information about gaining cultural competency when working with certain populations e. Persons seeking treatment or evaluation for a particular STD should be screened for HIV and other STDs as indicated by community prevalence and individual risk factors see prevention section and sections on chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Persons should be informed about all the STDs for which they are being tested and notified about tests for common STDs e.
Efforts should be made to ensure that all persons receive care regardless of individual circumstances e. After obtaining a sexual history from their patients, all providers should encourage risk reduction by providing prevention counseling. Prevention counseling is most effective if provided in a nonjudgmental and empathetic manner appropriate to the patient's culture, language, gender, sexual orientation, age, and developmental level. Such interactive counseling, which can be resource intensive, is directed at a person's risk, the situations in which risk occurs, and the use of personalized goal-setting strategies.
Briefer provider-delivered prevention messages have been shown to be feasible and to decrease subsequent STDs in HIV primary-care settings Other approaches use motivational interviewing to move clients toward achievable risk-reduction goals. Client-centered counseling and motivational interviewing can be used effectively by clinicians and staff trained in these approaches. Group-based strategies have been effective in reducing the occurrence of STDs among persons at risk, including those attending STD clinics Because the incidence of some STDs, notably syphilis, is higher in persons with HIV infection, the use of client-centered STD counseling for persons with HIV infection continues to be strongly encouraged by public health agencies and other health organizations.
A recent federal guideline recommends that clinical and nonclinical providers assess an individual's behavioral and biologic risks for acquiring or transmitting STD and HIV, including having sex without condoms, recent STDs, and partners recently Woman want real sex Millers Ferry for STDs. This guideline also recommends that clinical and nonclinical providers offer or make referral for 1 regular screening for several STDs, 2 onsite STD treatment when indicated, and 3 risk-reduction interventions tailored to the individual's risks HPV vaccination is recommended routinely for boys and girls aged 11 or 12 years and can be administered beginning at 9 years of age.
Vaccination is recommended through age 26 years for all females and through age 21 years for all males that have not received any or all of the vaccine doses. Hepatitis B vaccination is recommended for all unvaccinated, uninfected persons being evaluated or treated for an STD 34. The most reliable way to avoid transmission of STDs is to abstain from oral, vaginal, and Woman want real sex Millers Ferry sex or to be in a long-term, mutually monogamous relationship with a partner known to be uninfected.
For persons who are being treated for an STD other than HIV or whose partners are undergoing treatmentcounseling that encourages abstinence from sexual intercourse until completion of the entire course of medication is crucial. A recent trial conducted among women on the effectiveness of counseling messages demonstrated that women whose sexual partners have used condoms may benefit from a hierarchical message that includes condoms, whereas women without such experience might benefit more from an abstinence-only message A more comprehensive discussion of abstinence and other sexual practices than can help persons reduce their risk for STDs is available in Contraceptive Technology, 20th Edition When used consistently and correctly, male latex condoms are highly effective in preventing the sexual transmission of HIV infection.
In heterosexual HIV serodiscordant relationships i. Moreover, studies demonstrate that consistent condom use reduces the risk for other STDs, including chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis 22— By limiting lower genital tract infections, condoms also might reduce the risk of developing pelvic inflammatory disease PID in women In addition, consistent and correct use of latex condoms reduces the risk for HPV infection and HPV-associated diseases, genital herpes, hepatitis B, syphilis, and chancroid when the infected area or site of potential exposure is covered 26— Condoms are regulated as medical devices and are subject to random sampling and testing by the U.
Each latex condom manufactured in the United States is tested electronically for holes before packaging. Rate of condom breakage during sexual intercourse and withdrawal is approximately two broken condoms per condoms used in the United States. Rates of breakage and slip may be slightly higher during anal intercourse 33, The failure of condoms to protect against STD or unintended pregnancy usually from inconsistent or incorrect use rather than condom breakage Users should check the expiration or manufacture date on the box or individual package.
Latex condoms should not be used beyond their expiration date or more than 5 years after the manufacturing date. Male condoms made of materials other than latex are available in the United States and can be classified in two general : 1 polyurethane and other synthetic and 2 natural membrane. These can be substituted for latex condoms by persons with latex allergy, are generally more resistant to deterioration, and are compatible with use of both oil-based and water-based lubricants.
The effectiveness of other synthetic male condoms to prevent sexually transmitted infections has not been extensively studied, Woman want real sex Millers Ferry FDA-labeling restricts their recommended use to latex-sensitive or allergic persons. Natural membrane condoms frequently called "natural skin" condoms or [incorrectly] "lambskin" condoms are made from lamb cecum and can have pores up to 1, nm in diameter.
Although these pores do not allow the passage of sperm, they are more than 10 times the diameter of HIV and more than 25 times that of HBV. Moreover, laboratory studies demonstrate that sexual transmission of viruses, including hepatitis B, herpes simplex, and HIV, can occur with natural membrane condoms While natural membrane condoms are recommended for pregnancy prevention, they are not recommended for prevention of STDs and HIV. Providers should advise that condoms must be used consistently and correctly to be effective in preventing STDs and HIV infection; providing instructions about the correct use of condoms can be useful.
Communicating the following recommendations can help ensure that patients use male condoms correctly:. Several condoms for females are globally available, including the FC2 Female Condom, Reddy condom, Cupid female condom, and Woman's condom Use of female condoms can provide protection from acquisition and transmission of STDs, although data are limited Although the female condom also has been used during receptive anal intercourse, efficacy associated with this practice remains unknown In observational studies, diaphragm use has been demonstrated to protect against cervical gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis However, a trial examining the effect of a diaphragm plus lubricant on HIV acquisition among women in Africa showed no additional protective effect when compared with the use of male condoms alone.
Likewise, no difference by study arm in the rate of acquisition of chlamydia, gonorrhea, or herpes occurred 39, Nonspecific topical microbicides are ineffective for preventing HIV 41— Spermicides containing N-9 might disrupt genital or rectal epithelium and have been associated with an increased risk for HIV infection. N-9 use has also been associated with an increased risk for bacterial urinary tract infections in women 46, No proven topical antiretroviral agents exist for the prevention of HIV, though trials are underway to evaluate several candidates for vaginal and rectal microbicides using tenofovir and other antiretroviral drugs.
Sexually active women who use hormonal contraception i. Women who take oral contraceptives and are prescribed certain antimicrobials should be counseled about potential interactions A systematic review of epidemiologic evidence found that most studies showed no association between use of oral contraceptives and HIV acquisition among women.
Studies examining the association between progestin-only injectables and HIV acquisition have had mixed ; some studies show a higher risk of acquisition among women using depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate DMPAwhile other studies do not The World Health Organization WHO and CDC reviewed the evidence on hormonal contraception and HIV acquisition and concluded that data are insufficient to recommend that women modify their hormonal contraceptive practices, but that women using progestin-only injectables should be strongly advised to also use condoms as an HIV prevention strategy 49, In these trials, circumcision was also protective against other STDs, including high-risk genital HPV infection and genital herpes 54— Follow up studies have demonstrated sustained benefit of circumcision for HIV prevention 57 and that the effect is not mediated solely through a reduction in herpes simplex virus type 2 HSV-2 infection or genital ulcer disease These organizations also recommend that countries with hyperendemic and generalized HIV epidemics and low prevalence of male circumcision expand access to safe male circumcision services within the context of ensuring universal access to comprehensive HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support.
In the United States, the American Academy of Woman want real sex Millers Ferry AAP recommends that newborn male circumcision be available to families that desire it, as the benefits of the procedure, including prevention of penile cancers, urinary tract infections, genital ulcer disease, and HIV outweigh the risks In light of these benefits, the American Urological Association states that male circumcision should be considered an option for risk reduction, among other strategies No definitive data exist to determine whether male circumcision reduces HIV acquisition in MSM, although one randomized trial is ongoing in China A review found a modest protective effect among men who were the insertive partner for anal intercourse, but the evidence was rated as poor.
Further higher quality studies are needed to confirm any potential benefit of male circumcision for this population Unprotected intercourse exposes women to risks for STDs and unplanned pregnancy. Providers managing such women should offer counseling about the option of emergency contraception EC if pregnancy is not desired.
ECPs are available in the following formulations: ulipristal acetate in a single dose 30 mglevonorgestrel in a single dose 1. Some ECPs can be obtained over the counter; ECPs can also be provided through advance prescription or supply from providers 64, ECPs are most efficacious when initiated as soon as possible after unprotected sex but have some efficacy up to 5 days later. ECPs are ineffective but not harmful if the woman is already pregnant A Cochrane review summarized the efficacy, safety, and convenience of various methods of emergency contraception Genital hygiene methods e.
Therefore, antiretroviral therapy not only is beneficial to the health of persons with HIV infection, but also reduces the risk for continued transmission. For these reasons, treatment should be offered to all persons with HIV infection. Detailed guidance for prescribing antiretroviral regimens can be found in the U. A large randomized, controlled trial evaluated 3, serodiscordant heterosexual couples enrolled at 14 Africa sites in which the partner with HIV infection was also seropositive for HSV The co-infected partner was randomized to receive either placebo or acyclovir mg twice per day, and the primary outcome was HIV transmission to the uninfected partner.
Use of acyclovir had no effect on HIV transmission These findings are consistent with those from a trial that found no benefit of acyclovir in preventing HIV-1 acquisition in persons who were seropositive for HSV-2 Certain large, randomized, placebo-controlled trials examining daily oral antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis PrEP with a fixed-dose combination of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate TDF and emtricitabine FTC have demonstrated safety 73 and a substantial reduction in the rate of HIV acquisition for MSM 74HIV-discordant heterosexual couples 75and heterosexual men and women recruited as individuals In addition, one clinical Woman want real sex Millers Ferry involving IDUs 77 and one involving heterosexual HIV-discordant couples 75 demonstrated substantial efficacy and safety of daily oral PrEP with TDF alone when combined with repeated condom provision, sexual risk-reduction counseling, and the diagnosis and treatment of STDs.
Data suggest that when administered orally, levels of TDF are lower in vaginal tissue than rectal tissue, potentially explaining why high levels of adherence were needed to yield benefits among women in these trials Despite initial concerns about PrEP fostering antiretroviral resistance among persons who become infected, standard tests employed in these studies detected emergence of resistance only in persons inadvertently started on PrEP during acute HIV infection, not in persons who were initially uninfected but later became infected while taking PrEP medication The U.Woman want real sex Millers Ferry
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Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines,